Google Places Optimization Provides Strategic Marketing

Google places optimization will promote your business through strategic marketing. Your local business can receive strategic marketing that result in new clientele and strengthened community awareness. Businesses are utilizing this plan to promote their business within their community; day Cares, nail salons, restaurants, churches, pizzerias, and others, are benefiting from this strategic plan. Learn more about an effective marketing strategy that works!

Google places optimization is designed for small and medium-sized businesses. This strategic marketing plan will include a keyword optimized website. These keywords are dynamic power buttons that connect potential clients directly to your establishment. Google places optimization registers directly with Google and provides you with a unique map listing along with the ability to out rank competition involved in Internet searches. Expertise is needed to provide you with the highest ranking possible. This is an excellent way to bring your business out of obscurity and into the light. You can gain the attention in your community by gaining attention through Internet marketing. Local businesses are mixed with deep competition. Most local businesses are focusing their attention on outdated marketing, such as scattered marketing. Scattered marketing utilizes “snail mail” to send mass mailings. This marketing is not only expensive, is outdated. Just as the Yellow Pages have become dusty and unused, mass mailings are being ignored and tossed in the trash. Most potential customers are now utilizing the Internet to connect with local establishments providing services that they desire. This is a practical and affordable way to grow your business. Dentists, lawyers, pizzerias, sit-down restaurants, contractors, landscapers, and more, all benefit from this strategy.

Local business optimization will help you in reaching your goals and will assist you in consistently obtaining new customers. This process strategically focuses on capturing the attention of individuals searching for the exact services that you provide. This is accomplished through the use of keywords. These keywords must be appropriately chosen. An expert will be able to provide you with the best keyword usage for your establishment. Your website needs to be properly designed in order to grab the attention of major search engines, such as Yahoo and Google. Most local businessmen and women have not tapped into the resources available through Google places optimization. Much of your competition may be lost in the dark when it comes to Internet marketing. By having an expert provide your establishment with local business optimization, you can move the head of organizations that have in operation longer then you. Individuals searching for services which you provide will be connected through keyword usage as well as through Google places optimization. An expert will provide you with excellent reviews from your current customers that will encourage others to utilize your service. You will be able to maximize your community interest through Internet marketing.

Local business optimization is grabbing the attention of potential clientele as they utilize their laptops, blackberries, GPS devices, and iPads to search for services. You will have a direct link to these potential clients when your website is optimized with those keywords. An expert will provide you with keywords that will grab the maximum amount of searches each day. This is the best SEO tool provided for local businessmen and women. Private schools, auto dealers, contractors, pizzerias, beauty shops, restaurants, and retail establishments are utilizing this marketing technique. Now is an excellent time to gain superiority in your Google places optimization; if you move fast, your listing can be first among all the competition.

SEO Company India

All of us are familiar with the fact that how imperative it is to ensure correct functioning of ones website at all times and how SEO or Search Engine Optimization can add value. However, the online arena is fast growing with new techniques being introduced everyday hence it is essential that you hire an expert SEO company to ensure you are in pace with the competition.

A typical Search Engine Optimization company would offer a range of services. This may purely focus on redesigning in which SEO may or may not be an integral part. Other services would include Pay Per Click (PPC) campaigns, link building services, email marketing, and a variety of social media techniques and more.

Selecting and engaging an SEO Company can be a colossal task at times however things ease out if you are clear about what you need and why you should go for them. It is pointless to seek out a PPC expert if you are low on budget and do not mind if you do not get quick results. There are a range of better and cost effective strategies if you really want to increase traffic to your website.

It is to be kept in mind that a typical SEO Company may be experts in one domain and novices in others. For example if the company is advising you to throw in money for a PPC Campaign to attract traffic then that doesn’t mean that they can do exceptional social media marketing or email marketing as per your requirement. By understanding what exactly you would like to achieve and what online strategy to entail, you can move one step closer to finding the right kind of company for the job.

If you are offering a product or service that seems to be out of this world and it is not getting the attention it should deserve, it may so happen that by creating a landing page and chalking out a campaign to drive traffic towards that page is all you require. If you wish to increase the awareness of your brand then by assessing your target visitors and trying to find out where these visitors mostly hang out you could even discover that Social Media strategy could be most appropriate for you.

Do not fall victim to any SEO company that can strongly guarantee you leading positions on search engines. This is because the underlying algorithm for search engines keep changing and are never constant and it takes great efforts to fetch and sustain good rankings on top of search engines.

Once you are clear about what you need and what you require when it comes to online marketing then do a little legwork and research to find the right kind of company that can help you reach the top of search engines. Leading SEO Company in India like IT Chimes have a strong record of assisting companies to attain success in their online marketing goals.

For more information on SEO Company India visit Search Eccentric

Increase Your Search Engine Positioning on Google With Our Top Five Tips

You are only 5 tips away from getting the site you want most, so keep reading to discover the know-how you need to attain the website of your dreams.

Content Is Crucial

Quality content is priority with any established website. Your content should be not only relevant, but informative and of interest. What’s more, your grammar and spelling must be excellent! If writing is not your strength, employ a professional or be sure to do your homework. The content you include on your site should also be combined with the results of your keyword research. Don’t stuff your content as this can look like spam, instead try to include keywords for your product/services in the titles and sub-headings.

Does Google Know Your Site Exists?

If you want web surfers to find your site, it is essential that you tell the search engines that your site exists! Sounds simple, but many website owners overlook this simple factor. In order to complete this, it is important that you submit your website to as many directories as possible. In addition to this, advertising your website via social networks and blogs is a further way to ensure the search engines know your site exists. By doing so, this will allow search engines to know you have quality content allowing you to rank higher in the search engine results.

SEO-friendly URLs

When choosing your URL for your website, you need to do so in an SEO-friendly manner. This can be achieved by choosing keywords that are relevant to your content and the product/service that you are selling. However, do not over-do it as this will upset the search engines and result in your ranking in a lower position.

Keep Your Website Fresh

Your website needs to be original and well-written in order to work well in the search engines. The higher your site ranks in search engines such as Google, the more visitors you will encounter and the more recognition you will gain. If your content begins to appear out-of-date, it is important that you keep them up-to-date. Fresh content on your site will also help to keep your site highly dynamic – this is something the search engines will recognise allowing your site to be ranked higher.

Title Tags and Meta Tags

Both meta tags and title tags have a positive effect on SEO Services. It has been said that Google does not pay attention to such tags whilst Bing and Yahoo do. Each search engine has a different algorithm and so it is still necessary to spend time adding these tags. Just be certain that you do not use the same meta tag for each page – instead utilise relevant keywords as your tags. For more information on SEO and web site design please our website.

NexGen SEO Company brings you cost effective professional web design, webpage design, seo optimization, SEO Service and reputation management services by virtue of its creative web designers, brand management experts and expert SEO India professionals. It ranks at par with the best SEO companies and SEO web design firms.

Search Engine Optimization

In efforts to increase sales and profitability, more and more companies are turning to online marketing initiatives specifically, search engine optimization. Search Engine Optimization is the art and science of the mixture of technical and marketing into a finely tuned website that is both search engine, ranks well for certain keywords and phrases, and suits your audience a perspective buyer and seller.

According to a recent American study found that only 20 percent of all businesses outsource search engine optimization programs to professional SEO Companys. The remaining 80 percent would be to conduct search engine optimization or they believe they have all the resources and skills to do it in-house. Of this 80 percent, it is likely that 90percent of these companies can not be found on the Web � they do not exist. In order to generate a significant amount of Web visibility, your website must typically rank in the top-30 results.

So, the question boils down to what is in your best interest to the business.

Make your SEO program in-house or subcontract. To answer this question we will first focus on the knowledge, skills and resources necessary to implement and maintain a good program for search engine optimization.

SEO knowledge and skills

1) Basic understanding of how search engines and directories.

This may seem too obvious, but you would be surprised the number of people do not understand how they actually work. This knowledge is the basis of your SEO program.

2) Website design

Although SEO is not completely a technical marketing process, it requires a fair amount of technical knowledge of what constitutes search engine-friendly web design. Some elements of web design can help your search engine rankings or hurt them. Simply knowing who is who.

3) the experience SEO Expert

This is the most important and most difficult to obtain knowledge. If you have never implemented a programme of SEO, then you are in a big surprise. Search engine optimization programs require a lot of research and are extremely tedious. More importantly, they need real SEO experience. That means knowing what strategies and tactics SEO work and those who do not.

In-house vs. out-sourced programmes SEO

If your company is considering conducting your program search engine optimization in the house, here are some questions to consider.

Who will be responsible for the analysis, design, implementation and measure the success of your program SEO.

Is this considered the role of your department, marketing or other service in your company.

Do they have the time, knowledge and resources to successfully implement and maintain your program search engine optimization? And do they really care if it works or not?

IT Department

Typically your IT department handles multiple tasks daily troubleshooting your company’s LAN or WAN to fixing the sales department laptop? Over a long IT person of the day, what priority and focus do you think he or she will commit to for your listing? And even if your IT department has some skills in web design or development, these skills represent only a small percentage of the knowledge required for a successful programme of search engine optimization.

Marketing Department

Typically, your marketing department juggles many marketing projects and the faces of both the timely completion. From handling new campaigns for print collateral is preparing to launch new products or services, marketing personnel’s time to spread very thin. In addition, our skills and your marketing department is in the technical aspects of web design and search engine optimization? Do they have the time to become well-versed? Do they have sufficient internal resources? Often, the answer to both questions is no, they do not.

Other individual (s) within your company

Well, the responsibility falls on someone outside or your marketing department. Who’s who and why are they responsible for your SEO program? To give interested parties a new “project of the month,” usually result in another tick off their monthly to-do list and frustration by senior management on their website is why not produce results sales.

Summary

From a business standpoint, it makes sense to try to mobilize domestic resources to maximize your company’s productivity and profitability � whenever possible. However, there must be a line drawn in the sand between what your organization’s capabilities are and what they are not.

As you can see, there are no more search engine optimization than meets the eye. In order to implement and maintain a SEO program, you must acquire the knowledge, skills and resources. This can be done by hiring a professional search engine optimization of the company. Professional SEO Companys have devoted their resources and experience to support your company’s web marketing initiatives. Building on their experience and know-how, your company can quickly and more effectively successfully implement the programme of SEO Expert

Spread the Words Through Viral Marketing

Viral marketing involves a wide range of promotional activities that motivate people to pass along a marketing message to other individuals through any means of communication. Viral marketing can spread to millions in just seconds with the use of internet, hence the term “Viral”.

There are two common components of a viral marketing campaign. The first is digital video production. Viral videos are quite often short to ensure high viewership and immediately entertaining for the purpose of distribution. It can be based on existing videos in television, short clips from a mixture of sources or an intended or unintended video files with high entertainment value. Most use short video clips that are posted in social networking sites and business sites. Viral videos are short, novel, humorous and informative. It can run for just 30 seconds (even less in fact!) and can attract viewers not just to the video itself but to the services or products the video might market.

The second most common component of viral marketing is e-mail campaign. An e-mail is distributed to recipients containing some information, it may be of a marketing content or not, but generally it is aimed at encouraging the recipient to pass the information to a friend. In the e-mail, a viral video, link or a picture may be attached.

Businesses use an e-mail campaign when they like to invite people to attend product launchings or promotional events. A viral e-mail contains texts that aim to encourage the recipient to forward the e-mail to his contacts.

Other components include Short Message Service, blogging, social media interactivity, television, radio, polling services, and outbound and inbound call center services.

Effective viral marketing campaigns are based on three principles: social profile gathering, proximity market analysis and real-time key word density analysis. Companies that offer viral marketing service, just like New Media Service, use these three in advertising models to math a business with their target customers.

Viral marketing such as New Media Services’ “Forward Marketing” work by producing a viral video, e-mail or a blog depending on the best way to catch customers’ attention. Producers of viral videos think of how to present the product in the most novel way. Viral videos consist of simple information that reflects the services offered by the business, the prominent element is usually just the logo.

If the business does not have a website to post the videos, there are alternative options available such as influential websites like Youtube and Facebook. In e-mail campaigning, a list of recipients is prepared ahead of time. Live operators publish the video or send the e-mail to recipients, or manually call customers to deliver the message. Live operators may use blogging and other tools to increase the visibility of the marketing message.

When a viewer watches the video, he may also consider downloading it and storing it in his mobile device. Because viral videos are totally entertaining and easily gain publicity, viewers will surely forward the video to others. Viral e-mails, SMS messages and blogs are usually forwarded to peers.

The key target in the viral marketing process is “the buzz” wherein people talk about the video to their network of family, friends, acquaintances and often, random people. The initial production cost of the video is more often than not, the only expense; as advertising the product or service is done by the very same target market. Essentially, the entire job of business networking is done by people who find the viral campaign entertaining.

Viral videos and e-mails set the topic of conversations among groups. Most often, influential people recommend a product according to what they see in videos sent to them. They unconsciously utter the business’ name. Some result in the advantage of “perceptual value” wherein the viral marketing campaign creates good perceptions about the business that in turn, help build a solid business image.

The bottom-line of viral marketing is “word of mouth” promotion. Undoubtedly, “word of mouth” is the most powerful marketing tool.

Online Reputation Can Affect Your Business

Reputation is a very important aspect and especially in business, having reputation that can be maintained will surely yield good , reputation is a crucial part of a business and there are many business owners who must take care of one’s own reputation.

Maintaining a positive image and reputation is really important and there are professional marketing methods and advertising methods that can give profitable results. Therefore while working through online, lot of attention and care should be taken for many reasons to not only to sell products and services, but also to collect as many new customers as you can with perfect management of online reputation.

Having a good character also a very important part of online business andthe more polite you are in communication, the more will be your online reputation. Usage of good words and your online etiquette should be your high priority always.

When you maintain easy access, visibility and durability, you will surely receive publicity and your reputation will improve. Your interaction and your communication will surely be advantageous to you giving you the best benefits to earn more and more profits for your business.

Not only keeping a close communication but also checking your feedback and taking the opinion will encourage your customers to keep in touch with you and there is a scope for more reliability to opt for your services and products. Replying to customers promptly and extending the services will surely give you lot of reputation as customers would like to save time whether for buying products or for services.

So when you properly maintain your web site management, time management in delivering the products and services, you will surely receive more number of customers to your credit and this will expand your business operations. Similarly negative feedback and negative comments should be thoroughly checked and verified.

Getting a direct contact with customer and inquire more about negative opinions and clarifying these will retain your online reputation. This will surely lead to the examining of the problems and you can give more attention to the solutions and solve the problems as and when they occur.

Essential Components of Search Engine Marketing

Ranking in search results is an everyday battle. If you want to be visible online and draw potential customers to increase traffic, you need to apply search engine marketing to your business. The purpose of search engine marketing is to make your page be known by staying on the first page on every search result, and perhaps topping in these searches. Search marketing says that the higher online visibility that your business have, the higher is the opportunity for business growth.

Having to talk about this matter, we have jotted down some important points to keep you on track.

Keyword Strategy. Maximize the free opportunity of using the right search marketing keywords. Your site should have keywords that are relevant to your industry and to the services that you are offering. However, be cautious not to overused keywords though, as it makes your content awkward to read making is unworthy to visit.

Content is A Must. Anything that you post on your site should be original. The good web content attracts visitors to browse through pages. In addition, you should ensure that the contents of your site is appropriate, interesting and worthwhile to read. You can also maximize your search marketing opportunities on this area by writing articles that uses relevant keywords.

Site Activity. An interactive site is also essential in search engine marketing. If your site has more activity, it is more likely to appear and rank on search results, which then results to an increase in traffic and online visibility.

Meta Tagging is Key. Make sure that every meta tags used are specially optimized. This is because search engines use meta tags as the content in your listing, which would make your site be indexed by search engines

Backlinks. These are links found in other sites that is directed to your website. These are important in the sense that some search engines rank search results of pages with a good quality of backlinks.

Traffic Conversion. The conversion of all your efforts is important because it is the concluding factor of whether to continue such search engine marketing strategy or have it revised.

If you want a fully optimized website, it is necessary to ensure that the aforementioned components are present in your strategy, because search engine marketing is all about ranking on search results the moment you decide to appear online.

How Google Market Marketing And Advertising Impacts Regional Sector Potential

But that’s okay – I’m likely to click on on the first a few lookup results and see what they are about and what other guides are associated to them. I’m also heading to seem at how lots of reviews there are.

The associated textbooks give me an thought if this unique niche as been damaged down any further more and what publications are getting bought that relate to the key e book.

Very well I can see from my end result that the initially a single is really considerably based on designer jewellery and the connected textbooks incorporate a several far more ‘designer’ or high end’ guides but there are also other points, like ‘jewelry making’.

That’s a beneficial market to jot down and keep in intellect if you want to compose about jewelry, perhaps you are a jewellery maker? It’s possible that’s your enterprise or pastime?

I certainly know that trend is a substantially talked about matter, so there are likely to be opinions and that’s quite beneficial for the reason that at minimum it’s a hot subject. And the point that folks acquire other publications that are relevant is also a superior way to gauge a prosperous matter.

If you want to cease there you can, but if you even now haven’t observed your market then do precisely the very same with just about every associated investigation phrase you received from Google Key phrase Tool. It may take you a whilst to obtain the market that is both equally effectively searched for as very well as a person that hasn’t been written about to death. You have to discover some balance.

For now I’ll get jewellery doing above to and put that in the search engine, only this time I’ll seeking for forums that contain this research phrase.

You can do the exact if you’d like to see quite simply what I see. Variety into Google, ‘jewelry creating forums’

I’ve clicked on the 1st hyperlink that comes up which is an About Discussion board. Without becoming a member of it I can notify there is a good deal of exercise, a lot of posts and a lot views for each and every publish. This tells me that jewellery creating is a superior area of interest and one particular that is well received. There are a whole lot of subjects on stones, necklaces, and Gothic Chic. The moment again these are all niches of jewelry producing.

So, if I desired to, I would choose a single of individuals niches and if I was a home business that specialises in this, for illustration, gems/stones, necklaces or Gothic jewelry I may possibly like to create an e-book based mostly on an individual of those and incorporate how I make it into a home business.

It takes time to find your area of interest, but when you have and you know you can publish about it, simply exploration more information and facts on it, and potentially have a neighborhood primarily based all-around it you know you’re heading to make at minimum a thing with your e-book – due to the fact people will love awareness and pictures primarily based on that market.

Content Creation Formula That Hardly Any Network Marketer Uses

How can SEO become a dependable source of constant quality traffic for any online business?

To answer this question we must address the core element, the life blood of SEO. There are many factors that influence SEO ranking but one of them is what triggers this whole repertoire of variables and this is the Content – your greatest asset online.

For content to make a difference in your traffic reports, it must composed or built on an organized manner. You want to think about this content production formula more how a TV producer would,namely, by fragmenting it into distinct phases with their unique mechanics. These production phases will be analyzed in the following lines.

1. Content scheduling

First thing that needs to be taken care of is evaluating your content necessity. Analyze your blogging topics, establish what is your niche market interested in and scarcely covered, what are the gaps at informational level within your market.

After approximating the volume of content you have to create, start evaluating your assets. Do you have certain skills you migh want to employ whem composing your content – writing, speaking, making and producing videos-? What is your available time to tackle this process? Do you have a budget to allocate for hiring freelance writers and ghost writers?

An extremely important aspect to consider when producing content is to create a buffer where you have enough content created ready to be released which covers your publishing schedule for at least one week (when you first start), thus lifting the pressure from your “production department”.

2. Content research

In order to produce up-to-date and attractive content that generates quality traffic back to your webpages, you must make a habit out of this phase. Doing so, you’ll keep under close observation the following components of your market:

-your competitors, the marketing materials they release and their marketing tactics; -what’s being published in your market; -what’s being perceived as valuable content by your prospects, both in terms of information as well as of the format in which information is transmitted.

All your research data should be archived for continuous use into a “swipe file” categorised by the market’s components. A good platform to build your “swipe file” in is Google Docs.

What makes this service so great is that you can permanently supply your research database no matter where you are, as long as you have an internet connection. Plus, inserting your extracted information is a simple copy-n-paste process, whether it would be that of an URL or text excerpt.

3. Content development

This is where your content is starting to take shape. After fixing the core ideas and concepts you what to build your content around, the next phase is creating the structure on which to put your information in a coherent manner.

If it’s an article you write the headline and sub-headlines, choose the style of your writing. If it’s a podcast will you make an interview or a plain narration of the information available? If you plan on making a video, will it be a desktop tutorial, a PowerPoint presentation? you name it.

4. Content creation

Whether articles are written, podcasts recorded or video produced, it all happens in this phase. Make use of your personal skills (writing, speaking, video producing) or/and hire someone else to compensate your weak points.

5. Content release

Needless to say that your publishing efforts should be directed towards the top informational platforms that set the bit for the online community, namely YouTube – Videos, GoArticles, EzineArticle – articles, iTunes – podcasts, etc.

A short side note reguarding the “duplicated content” issue. There are opinions which state that Google will give you no benefit or worse, even penalize you for posting same content across different websites. At the polar opposite there are others which see no harm in publishing content to different websites, e.g. article directories.

I must admit that for a period of time I’ve embraced the radical opinion of Google penalizing those who use so-called “duplicated” content across different sites.

After thorough research in different marketing forums, reading and listening to SEO experts I can now conclude that it’s absolutely OK to use an article (piece of content, in general) to different web localitions (including your website) as long as you are not (or Google believes you’re not) the owner of these different sites.

Also be sure to post your content firstly on your own website so you benefit from Google indexing it. By posting it on multiple websites you gain backlinks – very, very important element that contributes to your site ranking.

Releasing content on the web must be scheduled. You don’t want to put out tons of content all on the same day and be absent for the next two weeks. What you’re looking for is a constant flow of traffic to your webpages and no radical fluctuations between high peaks and flat zero.

Let your information be digested by the community. Don’t rush the process because it will bury good quality content before it had time to work for you.

6. Content syndication

Interconnect all the social media and submission platforms like Twitter, Facebook, Digg, YouTube, Delicious, Technorati, etc. and get your content viraly exposed. This is done by taking advantage of the wide gallery of plugins and widgets that enhance the functionality of these platforms.

7. Content promotion

Supplement syndication throughout social media by starting to actively promote your content with your mailing list, on forums and topic-related blogs.

That’s the seven-step formula how to produce quality and targeted content for improving SEO stats and ultimately generate traffic to your business webpages.

Go to my blog and receive daily updates on SEO tips and strategies to implement with your business webpages.

Professionalism in Search Engine Optimization

Best professionals are brought forward by these SEO London organizations which satisfy the need of global internet marketing and enhance the company’s growth directly placing the company in front of the viewers of the web whose ratings are also evaluated to convert its priority to high level. The assurance in providing good quality is been given by the experts of this SEO London organization. The exploitation of mediums in the online are been advice by the companies of SEO London to the online users and companies located by the surroundings of the Europe strategies as well as the strategy of American strategies.

The functioning of the search is thoroughly understood by these companies. By executing the optimization of search engine accurately the team realize to the client about the marketing goals. Practical implementation is done while designing the web sites along with the furnishing products of SEO London or SEO UK based organizations. By the desire of the client needs and requirements the web sites are refined. The organization produces half of its obtained revenue from the innovative web sites designing of the sites produced from them.

The designing of the sites are so simple and feasible so that the viewers can easily understand the theme and so the marketing aspects are been increased. To develop an online marketing success this search engine optimization is used. The SEO UK and SEO London Company which provides good service like considering every small scale and large scale SEO which has greater advantages is specified as ideal search engine optimization. The different advertisements are unimplemented in order to form good ratings among the competitive companies and organizations existed in the online. In the way of ranking system quick results for SEO UK are obtained.

The conversion of the web sites to the traffic is been continued by SEO London and SEO UK based organizations too to get faster access and spread the fame of the organizations. The lucrative models of the web sites are also obtained from this SEO UK and SEO London system of accessing the databases and the organizations. The popularity of the company can be achieved quicker information regarding the respective company aspects using the standards of the sales and companies updating.

The investment in these SEO London and SEO UK works best in the economy problem of the company as well as the traffic of company site is considered to be at the top list so that many viewers can view and the hiring of the company also starts due to the mismatch in the company. Becoming popular with these styles really motivates the other used scenarios. At least the sites get benefit while best services are provided by these companies. Longer running projects seek more time hence we are inquiring for the best features to provide this feature to these organizations. Proper implementation that is the maintenance of the sites and developing the marketing skills in the online sites are done with good perfection.

The repute management levies heavy stress in the development of the sites and security to the online focusing of marketing tips and terminologies. To boost the company’s sale and development this skill is useful while in the online systems are used as an integral part for evaluation of rankings of SEO UK and SEO London elements of web marketing. Analysis is done by the proper experts who best fit to the organizations limitations and criteria based on the requisition and implementation of task of global marketing through the web sites. Online entrepreneurs are being processed in the online sites who really gives the assistance for the development of SEO UK and SEO London types and related topics on the on line system.